Drug Study: haloperidol (Haldol)

Generic name:
haloperidol

Brand name:
Haldol

Preparations:
Tablets: 0.5mg, 1mg, 2mg, 5mg, 10mg

CLASSIFICATION: Antipsychotics

ACTION:
• Alters the effects of dopamine in the CNS
• Also has anticholinergic and alpha-adrenergic blocking activity.
• Diminished signs and symptoms of psychoses

INDICATION / USES:
•Organic Psychoses
• acute psychotic symptoms
• Relieve hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking
• severe anxiety
• seizures


COMMON ADVERSE EFFECTS:

•CNS: extrapyramidal symptom such as muscle rigidity or spasm, shuffling gait, posture leaning forward, drooling, masklike facial appearance, dysphagia, akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, headache, seizures.
•CV: tachycardia, arrhythmias, hypertension, orthostatic hypertension.
•EENT: blurred vision, glaucoma
• GI: dry mouth, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, weight gain.
• GU: urinary frequency, urine retention, impotence, enuresis, amenorrhea, gynecomastia
• Hematologic: anemia, leucopenia, agranulocytosis
• Skin: rash, dermatitis, phtosensitivity

CONTRA-INDICATIONS:
• seizure disorder
• glaucoma
• elderly clients

NURSING CONSIDERATIONS:

• Assess mental status prior to and periodically during therapy.
• Monitor BP and pulse prior to and frequently during the period of dosage adjustment. May cause QT interval changes on ECG.
• Observe patient carefully when administering medication, to ensure that medication is actually taken and not hoarded.
•Monitor I&O ratios and daily eight. Assess patient for signs and symptoms of dehydration.
• Monitor for development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (fever, respiratory distress, tachycardia, seizures, diaphoresis, hypertension or hypotension, pallor, tiredness, severe muscle stiffness, loss of bladder control. Report symptoms immediately. May also cause leukocytosis, elevated liver function tests, elevated CPK.
• Advise patient to take medication as directed. Take missed doses as soon as remembered, witih remaining doses evenly spaced through out the day. May require several weeks to obtain desired effects. Do not increase dose or discontinue medication without consulting health care professional. Abrupt withdrawal may cause dizziness, nausea, vomiting, GI upset, trembling, or uncontrolled movements of mouth, tongue or jaw.


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