Drug Study: Ranitidine (Zantac)

GENERIC NAME: Ranitidine

BRAND NAME: Zantac

CLASSIFICATION
Therapeutic:
Anti-ulcer agents

Pharmacologic:
Histamine H2 antagonists


DOSAGE

20 mg
IV q8h

MECHANISM OF ACTION
• Inhibits the action of histamine at the H2 receptor site located primarily in gastric parietal cells, resulting in inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

• In addition, ranitidine bismuth citrate has some antibacterial action against H. pylori.

INDICATION
•Treatment and prevention of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.

CONTRA INDICATIONS

Contraindicated in:

•Hypersensitivity, Cross-sensitivity may occur; some oral liquids contain alcohol and should be avoided in patients with known intolerance.

Use Cautiously in:

• Renal impair- ment
• Geriatric patients (more
susceptible to adverse CNS reactions)
• Pregnancy or Lactation

SIDE EFFECTS/ ADVERSE EFFECTS

• CNS:
Confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, hallucinations, headache

• CV:
Arrhythmias

• GI:
Altered taste, black tongue, constipation, dark stools, diarrhea, drug-induced hepatitis, nausea

• GU:
Decreased sperm count, impotence

• ENDO:
Gynecomastia

• HEMAT:
Agranulocytosis, Aplastic Anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

• LOCAL:
Pain at IM site

• MISC:
Hypersensitivity reactions, vasculitis

NURSING IMPLICATIONS/RESPONSIBILITIES
• Assess patient for epigastric or abdominal pain and frank or occult blood in the stool, emesis, or gastric aspirate.
• Nurse should know that it may cause false-positive results for urine protein; test with sulfosalicylic acid.
• Inform patient that it may cause drowsiness or dizziness.
• Inform patient that increased fluid and fiber intake may minimize constipation.
• Advise patient to report onset of black, tarry stools; fever, sore throat; diarrhea; dizziness; rash; confusion; or hallucinations to health car professional promptly.
• Inform patient that medication may temporarily cause stools and tongue to appear gray black.


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