GENERIC NAME: Ranitidine
BRAND NAME: Zantac
Histamine H2 antagonists
MECHANISM OF ACTION
• Inhibits the action of histamine at the H2 receptor site located primarily in gastric parietal cells, resulting in inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
• In addition, ranitidine bismuth citrate has some antibacterial action against H. pylori.
•Treatment and prevention of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.
•Hypersensitivity, Cross-sensitivity may occur; some oral liquids contain alcohol and should be avoided in patients with known intolerance.
Use Cautiously in:
• Renal impair- ment
• Geriatric patients (more
susceptible to adverse CNS reactions)
• Pregnancy or Lactation
SIDE EFFECTS/ ADVERSE EFFECTS
Confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, hallucinations, headache
Altered taste, black tongue, constipation, dark stools, diarrhea, drug-induced hepatitis, nausea
Decreased sperm count, impotence
Agranulocytosis, Aplastic Anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
Pain at IM site
Hypersensitivity reactions, vasculitis
• Assess patient for epigastric or abdominal pain and frank or occult blood in the stool, emesis, or gastric aspirate.
• Nurse should know that it may cause false-positive results for urine protein; test with sulfosalicylic acid.
• Inform patient that it may cause drowsiness or dizziness.
• Inform patient that increased fluid and fiber intake may minimize constipation.
• Advise patient to report onset of black, tarry stools; fever, sore throat; diarrhea; dizziness; rash; confusion; or hallucinations to health car professional promptly.
• Inform patient that medication may temporarily cause stools and tongue to appear gray black.