Drug Study: (TRAMADOL)

Brand Name: TRAMADOL

CLASSIFICATIONS
Therapeutic:
Analgesics (centrally acting)

ACTIONS
Physiologic Mechanism

• Decreased pain.

Pharmacologic Mechanism

• Binds to mu-opioid receptors.

• Inhibits reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS.

INDICATION
• Moderate to moderately severe pain

NURSING CONSIDERATIONS

• Assess type, location, and intensity of pain before and 2-3 hr (peak) after administration.

• Assess BP & RR before and periodically during administration. Respiratory depression has not occurred with recommended doses.

• Assess bowel function routinely. Prevention of constipation should be instituted with increased intake of fluids and bulk and with laxatives to minimize constipating effects.

• Assess previous analgesic history. Tramadol is not recommended for patients dependent on opioids or who have previously received opioids for more than 1 wk; may cause opioid withdrawal symptoms.

• Prolonged use may lead to physical and psychological dependence and tolerance, although these may be milder than with opioids. This should not prevent patient from receiving adequate analgesia. Most patients who receive tramadol for pain d not develop psychological dependence. If tolerance develops, changing to an opioid agonist may be required to relieve pain.
• Tramadol is considered to provide more analgesia than codeine 60 mg but less than combined aspirin 650mg/codeine 60 mg for acute postoperative pain.

• Monitor patient for seizures. May occur within recommended dose range. Risk increased with higher doses and inpatients taking antidepressants (SSRIs, tricyclics, or Mao inhibitors), opioid analgesics, or other durgs that decrese the seizure threshold.

• Overdose may cause respiratory depression and seizures. Naloxone (Narcan) may reverse some, but not all, of the symptoms of overdose. Treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Maintain adequate respiratory exchange.

• Encourage patient to cough and breathe deeply every 2 hr to prevent atelactasis and pneumonia.


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