Contributing Factors: Compromised regulatory mechanisms, such as renal failure, heart failure, and cirrhosis; overzealous administration of sodium-containing fluids; and fluid shifts (i.e. treatment of burns). Prolonged corticosteroid therapy, severe stress, and hyperaldosteronism augment fluid volume excess.
Signs and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestations: Acute weight gain, peripheral edema and ascites, distended jugular veins, crackles, and elevated CVP, shortness of breath, increased blood pressure, bounding pulse and cough, increased respiratory rate.
Labs indicate: decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, decreased serum and urine osmolality, decreased urine sodium and specific gravity.