Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis is an acid-base imbalance resulting from excessive absorption or retention of acid or excessive excretion of bicarbonate.
Contributing Factors:
- ketoacidosis
-lactic acidosis
- prolonged fasting
- salicylic poisoning
- oliguric renal disease
- abnormal bicarbonate losses, which can occur in loss of fluid from the lower GI tract from surgery, drains or severe diarrhea

Signs and Symptoms/ Clinical Manifestations:
- headache
- drowsiness and confusion
- weakness
- increased respiratory rate and depth
- nausea and vomiting
- diminished cardiac output with pH below 7, which results in hypotension, cold clammy skin and cardiac arrhythmias.

Labs indicated: arterial blood gas (ABG) studies reveal abnormal values: pH below 7.35 and HCO3 below 22 mEq/L; serum potassium level reveals hyperkalemia


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